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Sustantivos contables / no contables



COUNTABLE NOUNS (SUSTANTIVOS CONTABLES)

Por ejemplo: (a) car - (un) auto; (a) flower - (una) flor; (an) apple - (una) manzana. Puedes usar esta fórmula: ONE/TWO/THREE + COUNTABLE NOUN (uno/dos/tres...+ sustantivo contable). Puedes usarlos de este modo porque los PUEDES CONTAR; puedes contar ONE car, TWO flowers, THREE apples, etc. (UN auto, DOS flores, TRES manzanas, etc..).

Los sustantivos contables pueden estar en SINGULAR (= one, uno) o en  PLURAL (= two or more, dos o más). Veamos estos ejemplos:
SINGULAR: a car, my car, the car, etc. (un auto, mi auto, el auto, etc.)
PLURAL: cars, two cars, the cars, some cars, many cars, etc. (los autos, dos autos, los autos, unos o algunos autos, muchos autos, etc.).

OBSERVA AHORA ESTAS CURIOSIDADES GRAMATICALES:

Habrás observado tres líneas arriba que cars y the cars se tradujo en ambos casos como los autos. Veamos:

a) Cuando te refieres a "los autos" EN GENERAL, es decir a TODOS los automóviles del mundo NO DEBES USAR el artículo definido the: CARS are expensive (LOS AUTOS son caros). Lo mismo ocurre con cualquier otro sustantivo: ELEPHANTS don't fly (LOS ELEFANTES no vuelan); ARGENTINIANS eat too much meat (LOS ARGENTINOS consumen demasiada carne).

b) Cuando te refieres a "los autos" EN PARTICULAR (es decir a los automóviles de los cuales estás hablando) DEBES USAR el artículo definido the: He's buying THE CARS (Está comprando LOS AUTOS). Se supone que está comprando los autos acerca de los cuales nos estuvo hablando en algún momento.

ULTIMA OBSERVACION DE ESTE PUNTO:
NO DIGAS:  I don't have car  para significar No tengo auto.
DEBES DECIR: I don't have a car.


Countable nouns (countable)

For example: (a) car - (a) self, (a) flower - (a) flower, (n) apple - (a) block. You can use this formula: ONE / TWO / THREE + countable noun (one / two / three ... + countable noun). You can use them in this way because YOU CAN COUNT, you have ONE car, flowers TWO, THREE apples, etc.. (A car, two flowers, three apples, etc. ..).

The countable nouns can be singular (= one, one) or plural (two or more = two or more). Consider these examples:
SINGULAR: a car, my car, the car, etc.. (a car, my car, car, etc.).
PLURAL: cars, two cars, the cars, some cars, Many cars, etc.. (cars, two cars, the cars, one or a few cars, many cars, etc..).

GRAMMATICAL NOTES NOW THIS FACT:

You'll notice three lines up cars and the cars that resulted in both cases the cars. Let's see:

a) When you mean "cars" IN GENERAL, that is ALL the cars in the world must not use the definite article the: CARS are expensive (cars are expensive). The same goes for any other noun: ELEPHANTS do not fly (ELEPHANTS not fly); Argentinians eat too much meat (ARGENTINES consume too much meat).

b) When you mean "cars" in particular (ie the cars of which you are talking) You must use the definite article: He's buying THE CARS (CARS are buying). It is assumed that you are buying the cars on which we were talking at some point.

LAST NOTE OF THIS ITEM:
DO NOT SAY: I do not have car to mean I have no car.
YOU SAY: I do not have a car.
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How much / How many




How much? - How many? (Contables e incontables)
En ingles cuando queremos preguntar acerca de la cantidad de un sustantivo incontable, usamos
la estructura:
“How much + sustantivo + is there?

Ejemplo: How much milk is there ? = ¿ cuanta leche hay ?

En las respuestas se puede usar un partitivo no especifico como; a lot ( un montón ),
a little ( un poco ), none ( nada ), some ( algo ).

Ejemplo: How much milk is there ? = There is a little.
¿ Cuanta leche hay ? hay un poco

O por el contrario podemos usar partitivos especificos de unidad o medida o peso para especificar las cantidades;

Ejemplo: How much milk is there? = There is a litre, there is a bottle, etc..
¿Cuanta leche hay? Hay un litro, una botella, etc..

Si queremos preguntar acerca de la cantidad de un sustantivo contable, usamos la estructura:

“ How many + sustantivo + are there ?

Ejemplo: How many oranges are there ? = ¿ Cuantas naranjas hay ?

En las respuestas se usa: a lot (un monton), a few (unas pocas), too many, demasiadas), o none ( ninguna), some ( algunas), si queremos especificar cantidades entonces usamos partitivos contables del tipo; un kilo, un litro, un paquete, una bolsa, one, two, etc.

How much y how many se usan para preguntas en general acerca de cosas, cuando queremos que se nos indique las cantidades que hay, entonces how much y how many van acompañados de is there o are there.

Ejemplos: How much water is there? = There is 1 litre.
How many students are there? = There are eleven students in class.

Tambien existe otra forma de preguntar cuando no estamos seguros de si hay algo o no, y es usando, Is there + any + sustantivo (para incontables) o Are there + any + sustantivos (para contables)

Ejemplo: Is there any bread ? - ¿Hay algo de pan?
Yes, there is - Si hay
Are there any apples? - ¿Hay alguna manzana?
Yes there are - Si hay

Si quieres especificar la cantidad o cantidades, pues usas there is o there are + partitivo(s)

Ejemplo: There is a loaf of bread. Hay una barra de pan.
There are two loaves of bread. Hay dos barras de pan.
There is an apple. Hay una manzana.
There are three apples. Hay tres manzanas.


How much? - How many? (Countable and uncountable)
In English when we ask about the amount of an uncountable noun, we use
the structure:
"How much + noun + is there?

Example: How much milk is there? = How much milk is there?

The responses can be used as a non-specific partitive; a lot (a lot)
a little (a little), none (none), some (something).

Example: How much milk is there? = There is a little.
How much milk is there? There is a little

Or rather we can use specific partitive unit weight or measure or to specify the quantities;

Example: How much milk is there? = There is a liter, there is a bottle, etc. ..
How much milk is there? There is a liter bottle, etc. ..

If we ask about the amount of a count noun, we use the structure:

"How many + noun + are there?

Example: How many oranges are there? = How many oranges are there?

The responses were used: a lot (a lot), A Few (a few), too many, too) or none (none), some (few), if we specify amounts then use partitive type accounting, a kilo , a liter, a package, a bag, one, two, etc..

How much and How Many are used for general questions about things when we want to tell us the amounts to, then how much and How Many are accompanied by is there or are there.

Examples: How much water is there? = There is 1 liter.
How many students are there? = There are eleven students in class.

There is also another way of asking when we're not sure if there is anything or not, and is using, Is there + Any + noun (for countless) or + Any + Are there substantive (for accountants)

Example: Is there Any bread? - Is there any bread?
Yes, there is - If there
Are there Any apples? - Is there an apple?
Yes there are - if there

If you specify the amount or amounts, as there is or there are using are + partitive (s)

Example: There is a loaf of bread. There is a loaf of bread.
There are two loaves of bread. Two loaves of bread.
There is an apple. There is an apple.
There are three apples. There are three blocks.
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Some / Any




SOME – ANY
Ambas palabras se usan con sustantivos incontables o en plural, y aunque muchas veces no se traducen en castellano, en inglés no se pueden omitir. Ésa es la parte complicada para algunos hispanohablantes.

1. Normalmente SOME se usa en oraciones afirmativas y ANY en interrogativas y negativas:
Ejemplos comunes:
There are some books here.
Hay algunos libros aquí.
There are not any books here.
No hay libros aquí.
Are there any books here?
¿Hay libros aquí?

Ejemplos más elaborados:
I have some money at home.
Tengo algo de dinero en casa.
Do you have any children?
¿Tienes hijos?
I don't want any sweets now.
No quiero caramelos ahora.


SOME - ANY
Both words are used with uncountable nouns or plural, and though often not translated into Castilian, English can not be omitted. That's the tricky part for some Spanish speakers.

1. SOME normally used in affirmative sentences and ANY in interrogative and negative:
Common examples:
There Are some books here.
There are some books here.
There are not Any books here.
There are no books here.
Are there Any books here?
Are there books here?

More elaborate examples:
I have some money at home.
I have some money at home.
Do you have Any children?
Do you have children?
Any I do not want sweets now.
I do not want candy now.
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A lot of




A lot of
Para hablar de grandes cantidades, las expresiones más habituales son a lot of (con su variante más informal lots of), much y many. Como en el caso de some y any, que tratabamos en “Las expresiones de cantidad en inglés: some y any“,estas expresiones són sinónimas y lo que las diferencía es el tipo de frase en el cual se utilizan.

A lot of

Se utiliza en frases afirmativas, delante de un sustantivo:

Contable en plural:
I have got a lot of books.

Incontable (singular):
I have got a lot of work.


To speak of large numbers, the most common expressions are a lot of (with lots of more casual variant), much and many. As in the case of some and any, which were dealing with "expressions of quantity in English: some and any", these terms are synonymous and what differentiates them is the type of sentence in which they are used.
                                                 
A lot of

It is used in affirmative sentences, before a noun:

Accounting in the plural:
I have got a lot of books.

Uncountable (singular):
I have got a lot of work.
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Plurales Irregulares




Plurales Irregulares Ingles

¿Que es el plural en ingles y cual son los plurales irregulares en ingles?
Normalmente se añade una ’s’ para hacer el plural en ingles. Los plurales irregulares son palabras a que no añademos la ’s’, añademos o quitar otras letras, o la palabra queda igual.
Ej. 1 woman – 2 women
Los plurales irregulares en inglés ¿Que mas da?
Hay que distinguir entre los plurales irregulares escritos y los hablados. Si un plural irregular no afecta la pronunciación solo tiene importancia en terminos de escribir. Por otro lado, los irregulares que afectan la pronunciacion son muy importantes. Suena bastante mal cuando un estudiante dice ‘childs’ en lugar de ‘children.
¿Cual son los mas importantes?
1. Man – men (hombres)
2. Woman – women (mujeres)
3. Child – children (niños)
4. Foot – feet (pies)
5. Tooth – teeth (dientes)
6. Mouse – mice (ratones)
7. Sheep – sheep (ovejas)


English Irregular Plurals

What is the plural in English and which are irregular plurals in English?
Usually added an 's' to the plural in English. Irregular plurals are words not to añademos the 's', añademos or remove other letters, or the word stays the same.
Ex 1 woman - 2 women
Irregular plurals in English so what?
We must distinguish between irregular plurals written and spoken. If an irregular plural affects not only the pronunciation is important in terms of writing. Furthermore, the irregular affecting the pronunciation is very important. Sounds pretty bad when a student says' childs' instead of 'children.
What are the most important?
1. Man - men (men)
2. Woman - women (women)
3. Child - children (children)
4. Foot - feet (ft)
5. Tooth - teeth (teeth)
6. Mouse - mice (mice)
7. Sheep - sheep (sheep)
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Pasado del Verbo to be




Pasado del Verbo to be
-El verbo "To be" en pasado se traduce normalmente como:

I was= Yo era/ Yo estaba

Aunque conserva todos los usos que vimos en el presente.

-La irregularidad está en la primera persona "I was"y la tercera del singular "he was,she was,it was,


-Cuando se usa con There,significa Había.

There was a house.

               
Había una casa.

There were two houses.

               
Había dos casas.

 -Se usa para describir sucesos del pasado, así pues va frecuentemente acompañado de adverbios de tiempo.

Yesterday.

               
Ayer

Last night .

               
A noche

Last year.

               
El año pasado

Last week.

               
La semana pasada

Last weekend.

               
El fin de semana pasado

Last month.

               
El mes pasado

-La respuesta corta se hace con el pronombre y to be pasado was/were para la respuesta afirmativa y wasn't y weren't para la negativa.

Was she a dancer?

               
Yes,she was.

No,she wasn't.


-Recuerda que en las respuestas cortas hay que usar los pronombres y nunca los nombres.

Was Mary a dancer?

               
Yes,she was.

No,she wasn't.

After the verb to be
-The verb "To be" in the past is usually translated as:

I Was = I was / I was

While retaining all the uses we saw in the present.

-The irregularity is the first person "I was" and third in the singular "He Was, She Was, It Was,


-When used with There, There were mean.

There Was a house.


There was a house.

Were there two houses.


There were two houses.

  -Used to describe past events, so is frequently accompanied by adverbs of time.

Yesterday.


yesterday

Last night.


A night

Last year.


Last year

Last week.


Last week

Last weekend.


The last weekend

Last month.


Last month

-The short answer is done with the pronoun and to be passed was / were for the affirmative response and Was not Were not for the refusal.

Was she a dancer?


Yes, she was.

No, She Was not.


-Remember that the short answer is that never use pronouns and names.

Was Mary a dancer?


Yes, she was.

No, She Was not.


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Pasado Simple




Pasado Simple

El Pasado Simple es un tiempo verbal que se utiliza para describir acciones que han sucedido en un tiempo anterior y que ya han finalizado, por ejemplo:

She cleaned her house. Ella limpió su casa.
I broke the window. Yo rompí la ventana.

Aquí vemos su conjugación que en el español equivale al Pretérito Indefinido. Observa que la estructura de la oración es similar a la del Presente Simple:

Tanto en la forma interrogativa como en negativa se utiliza como auxiliar DID que es la forma pasada del verbo "TO DO" y acompaña al verbo principal en su forma infinitiva. En las negaciones puede utilizarse la forma contraída de DID NOT o sea DIDN'T. En el cuadro superior se emplea el verbo To Play (Jugar) a modo de ejemplo.

Al expresar una oración en Pasado Simple se entiende que la acción no guarda relación con el presente, como vemos en los siguientes casos:

He lost the keys. Él perdió las llaves.
(Puede que en el presente las haya encontrado).

She lent me a book. Ella me prestó un libro.
(Puede que ya se lo haya devuelto).

También es posible indicar el momento en que se desarrolla la acción para indicar el tiempo con mayor precisión:

They saw the movie last night. Ellos vieron la película anoche.
We went to London yesterday. Nosotros fuimos a Londres ayer.

Para poder formar una oración en tiempo pasado debemos distinguir dos tipos: VERBOS REGULARES y VERBOS IRREGULARES.

En el primero de los casos forman su Pasado Simple añadiendo la terminación ED al infinitivo, mientras que los irregulares reciben ese nombre por no seguir un patrón determinado y en este caso deben estudiarse individualmente.

Simple Past

Simple Past tense is used to describe actions that happened at an earlier time and have already completed, for example:

She Cleaned her house. She cleaned his house.
I broke the window. I broke the window.

Here is the conjugation in Spanish equivalent to the Past Indefinite. Notice that the sentence structure is similar to the Simple Present:

Both the negative interrogative form as is used as auxiliary DID is the past form of the verb "TO DO" and accompanies the main verb in its infinitive form. Negations can be used in the contracted form of DID NOT or DID. In the top box uses the verb To Play (Play) as an example.

Expressing a sentence in Past Simple means that the action is unrelated to the present, as shown in the following cases:

I lost the keys. He lost the keys.
(Perhaps in this the've found).

She lent me a book. She lent me a book.
(You might already have returned it).

It is also possible to indicate the time when the action is to indicate the time more accurately:

They saw the movie last night. They saw the movie last night.
We went to London yesterday. We went to London yesterday.

In order to form a sentence in past tense we must distinguish two types: regular verbs and irregular verbs.

In the first case are the Simple Past ED adding the ending to the infinitive, while the irregulars are so called not to follow a particular pattern and in this case must be studied individually.
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